- Textbook chapter(s) covered: Chapter 6
- An audio message from the instructor
- A video message from the instructor
Overview of Chapter Guide Six
This module has two portions. The first portion (Chapter Six Part I) introduces the concept of atomic structure and how the theories developed. The second portion (Chapter 6 Part II) extends the concepts of Chapter 6 Part I to outline specific rules for determining how electrons are configured in atoms.
Chapter 6 Part I shows how scientists discovered the unique arrangement of electrons around atoms. Classical physics did not supply an adequate answer for the stability of the atom. A new type of physics was required - quantum physics - which explained the "reality" of the subatomic world. Great names such as Bohr, de Broglie, Planck, Einstein, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, and more will be explored. We shall learn about three of the four quantum numbers and learn what they mean to chemists.
For a complete list of important concepts in Chapter 6 Part I, see the Chapter 6 Part I Study Guide.
Chapter 6 Part II furthers the work explored in Chapter 6 Part I to include the work of Pauli, Dirac and others. The complete picture of the atom (using the spin quantum number, ms) helps us determine the energies of electrons in atoms. We will also look at periodic properties of elements, much of which can be explained through the atomic energies of the outermost electrons.
For a complete list of important concepts in Chapter 6 Part II, see the Chapter 6 Part II Study Guide.
Resources for Chapter Guide Six
For this module, you should read Chapter 6 in your textbook.
The following screencasts might prove useful to you as you study this chapter.
- An Introduction to Electromagnetic Radiation
- More About Electromagnetic Radiation
- Energy and Planck's Constant
- Bohr and Sharp Line Spectra
- Bohr's Theory
- de Broglie, Schrodinger and Heisenberg
- An Introduction to Quantum Numbers
- Types of Orbitals
- The Spin Quantum Number
- Distribution of Electrons in Atoms
- Electron Filling Order (the n + l rule)
- Electron Configurations for Atoms
- Electron Configurations for Ions
The Chapter Six Part I Lecture notes and Chapter Six Part II Lecture noteswhich accompany this lesson will be helpful to you when going through this section. These are Web versions of the notes I use in my "normal" CH 221 class and should let you see what is important to me in this section.
A variety of handouts are available from Chapter 6. Feel free to explore all of them or just the ones which give you difficulty.
- Greats of Quantum Physics
- Heisenberg and Bohr
- Quantum Numbers
- Electron Configurations
- An Aufbau Diagram
- Periodic Trends
- Periodic Trends Diagram
Once you have mastered the concepts listed above, check out the Chapter Six Part I Concept Guide and the Chapter Six Part II Concept Guide for a series of worked problems relating to this chapter. They will help you to ensure the mastery of the knowledge from this chapter.
Finally, test yourself (and get extra-credit in the bargain!) on the following chemistry concepts. If you get 9 out of 10 correct (or some multiple thereof), submit the information to me to receive extra credit.
- Wavelength, Frequency and Energy
- Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
- The de Broglie Wave Equation
- Electronic Structures of Atoms and Ions
- The Quantum Numbers
Practice the Concepts of Chapter Guide Six
Please complete problem set #6 to further explore the molecule and compound concepts. Problem set #6 covers several questions from Chapter 6, and it can be found here. We will discuss problems like these during recitation, so come prepared to ask and answer questions.
For additional practice, try completing practice problem set #6 (with answers included at the end) and/or the non-assigned problems in Chapter 6 in your textbook. Answers to many of those problems are listed in the back of your textbook. Additionally, try this self-graded practice quiz relating to the use of quantum chemistry in our textbook.
If you need assistance on these problems, you have several options. You can visit the AVID / Learning Success Center located above the MHCC library on the Mt. Hood Community College campus; they have tutors available to help you with your chemistry homework. You can also contact me if you have any questions.
Test your mastery of the subject matter by trying the self quiz for Chapter 6 Part I and the self quiz for Chapter 6 Part II. These are ungraded tests that you can use to gauge your comfort level with these concepts. This sample Quiz #6 (answers) (which was given during a previous year's CH 221 class) will help you understand the kind of questions that will be asked on the quiz.
The Chapter Guides:
- Chapter Guide One (for Problem Set #1)
- Chapter Guide Two (for Problem Set #2)
- Chapter Guide Three (for Problem Set #3)
- Chapter Guide: Exam #1 (for Midterm Exam #1)
- Chapter Guide Four (for Problem Set #4)
- Chapter Guide Five (for Problem Set #5)
- Chapter Guide: Exam #2 (for Midterm Exam #2)
- Chapter Guide: Class Presentations (for the Class Presentations)
- Chapter Guide Six (for Problem Set #6)
- Chapter Guide: Final Exam (for the Final Lecture Exam)
Questions? Contact me!